Immune response after COVID-19 vaccination

The UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium (UK-CIC has partnered once more with The British Society for Immunology to create an infographic that explains the immune response that follows COVID-19 vaccination. Scroll down this page to discover more, click the download link to print the graphic or share on social media tagging @UKCICstudy and @britsocimm to help strengthen public understanding.

UK-CIC researchers are studying the interaction between SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and the immune system. The best way of protecting yourself against COVID-19 is by having a COVID-19 vaccination as it trains your immune system to respond to the virus quickly and effectively, preventing you becoming unwell. The vaccine works with your immune system to build immune memory for the virus, meaning you are protected for a long time after receiving both doses of the vaccine. 

Knowledge of COVID-19 and vaccine immunology will continue to evolve, and this infographic is accurate at the time of publishing in August 2021. The process illustrated below describes the mechanisms used by the COVID-19 vaccines currently approved for use in the UK, including mRNA vaccines (Pfizer and Moderna), and viral vector vaccines (Oxford/AstraZeneca).


Infographic explaining immune response generated by COVID-19 vaccine


Download the full infographic (PDF for printing)

Download the full infographic (PNG for use on social media)

Download a version formatted for Twitter

Download a version formatted for Instagram:

Click each number to download a series of 5 images, to be used in order - Tile 1 | Tile 2 | Tile 3 | Tile 4 | Tile 5


Common questions about COVID-19 vaccines are answered in the British Society for Immunology’s free, easy-to-read guide
A guide to vaccinations for COVID-19

Find out more about UK-CIC research, as well as how Patient and Public Involvement is central to the success of the project.