SARS-CoV-2-Specific T Cell Responses Are Not Associated with Protection against Reinfection in Hemodialysis Patients


Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

Contributing to research themes:

Patients with ESKD are vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.1 Multiple studies report that patients on hemodialysis (HD) mount variable SARS-CoV-2–specific serologic and cellular responses after natural infection.2,3 There is increasing evidence that neutralizing antibody and anti-S1 IgG titers are correlates of protection.4 However, the relationship of cellular immunogenicity and protection has not been established. Because emerging variants of concern are reported to reduce vaccine efficacy, it will be critical to understand which immune responses are likely to predict protection within vulnerable patient cohorts.5(preprint) We observed high incidence of SARS-CoV-2 reinfec- tion (RI) in patients on HD who were vaccine naive (25%, nine of 36 patients) and so we investigated whether cellular immune responses correlated with risk of RI in this cohort.

Author list:


  1. Transplantation Research and Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
  2. Oxford Transplant Centre, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
  3. Oxford University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom
  4. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
  5. Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
  6. Oxford Vaccine Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
  7. Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
  8. Translational and Clinical Research Institute Immunity and Inflammation Theme, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
  9. Department of Infection and Tropical Medicine, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
  10. Institute of Cancer and Genomic Science, College of Medical and Dental Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
  11. University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom
  12. Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, United Kingdom
  13. Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
  14. National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  15. Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  16. Oxford Centre for Global Health Research, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom


Sushma Shankar1,2,3, Joseph Beckett1, Tom Tipton4, Ane Ogbe5, Mwila Kasanyinga6, Christina Dold6, Sheila Lumley3,7, Fungai Dengu2,3, Gianluca Rompianesi2,3, Faysal Elgilani2,3, Stephanie Longet4, Alexandra Deeks5, Rebecca P. Payne8, Christopher J.A. Duncan8,9, Alex Richter10,11, Thushan I. de Silva12,13, Lance Turtle14,15, Katherine Bull3,7, Martin Barnardo2,3, Peter J. Friend2,3, Susanna J. Dunachie3,5,16, Joanna Hester1, Fadi Issa1, Eleanor Barnes3,5, Miles W. Carroll4 and Paul Klenerman3,5