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Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are exceptional mechanism-based correlates of disease, yet their potential remains largely untapped in COVID-19. Here, we determined circulating miRNA and cytokine and chemokine (CC) profiles in 171 blood plasma samples from 58 hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Thirty-two miRNAs were differentially expressed in severe cases when compared to moderate and mild cases. These miRNAs and their predicted targets reflected key COVID-19 features including cell death and hypoxia. Compared to mild cases, moderate and severe cases were characterised by a global decrease in circulating miRNA levels. Partial least squares regression using miRNA and CC measurements allowed for discrimination of severe cases with greater accuracy (87%) than using miRNA or CC levels alone. Correlation analysis revealed severity group-specific associations between CC and miRNA levels. Importantly, the miRNAs that correlated with IL6 and CXCL10, two cardinal COVID-19-associated cytokines, were distinct between severity groups, providing a novel qualitative way to stratify patients with similar levels of proinflammatory cytokines but different disease severity. Integration of miRNA and CC levels with clinical parameters revealed severity-specific signatures associated with clinical hallmarks of COVID-19. Our study highlights the existence of severity-specific circulating CC/miRNA networks, providing insight into COVID-19 pathogenesis and a novel approach for monitoring COVID-19 progression.